Starting in the 1940s, the idea for artificial intelligence lingered in laboratories and on the fringes of society for decades. In the 1980s and 1990s, development of machine learning techniques showed glimmers of hope for the technology’s potential, sparking a heightened period of development in the 2000s. Soon, AI became part of our day-to-day lives—most notably as digital personal assistants, such as Apple’s Siri and Amazon’s Alexa.

With the launch of technologies like OpenAI’s Chat Generative Pre-trained Transformer (ChatGPT) in November 2022, the world is now invigorated with ideas and trepidations.

In a brief interview (seconds long per question), [DWM]’s editor sat down with ChatGPT to gather AI’s collective knowledge and perspectives on doors and windows.

Queries were posted with the stipulation that answers be formed in 150 words or less, but in some cases, answers have been edited for brevity.

According to the platform’s disclaimer, answers are formed using information available September 2021 and prior. The system warns that “ChatGPT may produce inaccurate information about people, places, or facts.”

ChatGPT’s answers do not reflect the opinions of [DWM] magazine’s staff.

An AI-generated image (for “artificial intelligence thinking about doors and windows”)

[DWM]: Tell me a little bit about the history and what you know about the door and window manufacturing industries.

ChatGPT: The door and window manufacturing industries have a long history rooted in functional necessity and design evolution. From basic wooden structures in ancient times, they’ve advanced with the Industrial Revolution’s mass production techniques, introducing materials like iron, steel, aluminum and uPVC. Automation and computer-aided design have streamlined processes and enabled customization. Modern sustainability concerns have driven the development of eco-friendly materials and energy-efficient designs. These industries now shape contemporary architecture by blending aesthetics, functionality and sustainability to meet the ever-changing demands of residential and commercial construction.

[DWM]: Why do residential windows lag behind solid walls in thermal performance and what can be done to improve their performance?

ChatGPT: Residential windows typically lag behind solid walls in thermal performance due to inherent design challenges. Unlike walls, windows are primarily made of glass or other transparent materials, which are poor insulators compared to solid materials like brick or concrete. This results in higher heat transfer, making windows vulnerable to heat loss in cold weather and heat gain in hot weather.

To improve residential window performance, several strategies can be employed:

  • High-Quality Insulating Glass: Installing double or triple glazing with insulating gases (e.g., Argon or Krypton) between panes reduces heat transfer;
  • Low-E Coatings: Low-emissivity coatings on glass surfaces reflect heat, minimizing heat loss during winter and heat gain during summer;
  • Thermal Break Frames: Frames with thermal breaks, like vinyl or fiberglass, reduce heat transfer through the frame itself;
  • Sealing and Weatherstripping: Proper sealing and weatherstripping around window frames prevent drafts, minimizing air leakage;
  • Window Orientation and Shading: Strategic placement of windows and external shading devices (e.g., awnings or blinds) can minimize direct sunlight and heat gain; and
  • Smart Window Technology: Emerging technologies like electrochromic or thermochromic windows can actively adjust their tint to control heat and light transmission.

[DWM] What might the next generation of insulating glass be like?

ChatGPT: Here are some potential features and innovations that could characterize the next generation of insulating glass:

  • Dynamic Energy Efficiency: Smart glass that can dynamically adjust its tint or opacity based on external conditions, optimizing natural light and heat control for energy efficiency;
  • Integrated Sensors: Built-in sensors for temperature, humidity, and occupancy to optimize heating, cooling, and ventilation systems;
  • Energy Harvesting: Integration of energy-harvesting technologies, such as transparent solar cells, to generate electricity from sunlight without obstructing visibility; and
  • Wireless Connectivity: Integration with smart building systems for remote control and monitoring, enhancing energy management and security.

[DWM]: What are the top three window brands in the U.S.?


  • Andersen Windows: Andersen is one of the most respected and well-known window manufacturers in the U.S. They offer a wide range of window styles, including wood, vinyl [editor’s correction: Andersen hasn’t sold vinyl windows since the divestiture of Silverline in 2018], and composite options, known for their durability and energy efficiency;
  • Pella: Pella is another prominent brand in the U.S. known for its high-quality windows. They provide various window types, including wood, vinyl, and fiberglass, with a strong focus on energy efficiency and innovative designs; and
  • Marvin Windows and Doors: Marvin is renowned for its premium wood and wood-clad windows. It’s often considered a top choice for homeowners looking for high-end, custom-made windows with excellent craftsmanship and energy efficiency.

Please keep in mind that the popularity and reputation of window brands can evolve over time, and new entrants may have gained prominence since my last update.

[DWM]: Who invented double-pane insulating glass?

ChatGPT: Double-pane insulating glass was not the invention of a single individual but rather the result of gradual technological advancements in the glass and construction industries … While there is no single inventor associated with double-pane insulating glass, it represents a collaborative effort within the glass and construction industries to improve energy efficiency and thermal insulation in buildings.

[DWM]: What are the top three things door and window manufacturers can do to make their products better and more affordable?

ChatGPT: To make doors and windows better and more affordable, the door and window manufacturing industry can focus on:

  • Innovative Materials: Invest in research and development to discover and adopt cost-effective yet high-performance materials. This could include the use of advanced composites, eco-friendly options, or alternative materials that are both durable and budget-friendly;
  • Efficient Production Processes: Implement advanced manufacturing techniques like automation and lean production methods to streamline processes, reduce waste, and lower labor costs, ultimately making production more efficient and cost-effective; and
  • Energy Efficiency Standards: Embrace energy-efficient designs and standards to reduce long-term operating costs for consumers. High-performance windows and doors can lower heating and cooling expenses, making them more attractive and cost-effective choices over time.

[DWM]: Could AI some day be used to engineer better glass and windows?

ChatGPT: Yes, AI has the potential to play a significant role in engineering better glass and windows in the future. Here are several ways AI can contribute to advancements in this field:

  • Material Design: AI can accelerate the discovery and design of new materials with improved optical, thermal, and mechanical properties. Machine learning models can analyze vast datasets and predict material behavior, helping researchers find novel materials for glass and window manufacturing;
  • Manufacturing Optimization: AI-driven automation and robotics can enhance the precision and efficiency of glass and window production. Machine learning algorithms can monitor and control manufacturing processes, reducing defects and costs;
  • Customization: AI can facilitate the customization of windows to meet specific architectural and energy efficiency requirements. By analyzing building designs and local climate data, AI can recommend window configurations that maximize performance;
  • Quality Control: AI-powered quality control systems can detect defects in glass and window products with high accuracy, ensuring that only high-quality items reach the market;
  • Simulation and Testing: AI-driven simulations can model the behavior of glass and windows under various conditions, speeding up product development and reducing the need for physical testing; and
  • Lifecycle Analysis: AI can assess the environmental impact of different glass and window materials and designs, aiding in the development of more sustainable and eco-friendly products.

As AI and machine learning technologies continue to advance, they are likely to play an increasingly prominent role in the research, design, production, and optimization of glass and windows, leading to improved performance, energy efficiency, and cost-effectiveness in the industry.

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